Photochemical Etching: Optimal Solution for Vapor Chamber

Vapor Chambers

Vapor Chamber

Vapor chamber sample 01

Utilizing photochemical etching in vapor chamber manufacturing enables the production of thinner structures, facilitating the fabrication of ultra-thin vapor chambers suitable for space-constrained electronic devices.

What is a Vapor Chamber?

A Vapor Chamber stands as a pinnacle of cooling technology embraced by electronic devices like computers and smartphones. Working akin to heat pipes, it harbors a modest amount of liquid coolant within a sleek chamber. Upon encountering the device's heat, this coolant swiftly vaporizes, seamlessly distributing heat throughout the chamber.

As the vapor meets cooler surfaces, it condenses, guided by a wick structure that capillarily transports it back to the heat source. This intricate dance efficiently rids the system of excess heat, safeguarding optimal performance and durability.

Renowned for their thermal prowess, compactness, and slender profile, vapor chambers find their niche in scenarios where top-notch heat dissipation is imperative within tight spatial confines.

Mechanisms and Principles of Vapor Chambers

Vapor chambers facilitate heat dissipation through a four-step cycle: evaporation, gas transfer, condensation, and liquid transfer. Heat generated by the heat source causes the working fluid to evaporate, and the resulting vapor diffuses within the chamber, dissipating heat.

After heat dissipation, the vapor condenses back into liquid form and circulates back to the heat source through capillary action enabled by a wick with microscopic gaps.

The design of vapor chambers ensures the movement of gas inside the container, necessitating sufficient space and high capillary force for effective circulation, particularly when reducing the chamber's thickness.

Heat Spreader Diagram
Thermal Spread Plate Structure Diagram

Why are Vapor Chambers Needed?

Vapor chambers are needed in electronic devices due to the increasing demand for high performance, large capacity, and high-speed processing, which generates significant amounts of heat. This heat needs to be efficiently dissipated to prevent overheating and maintain optimal performance.

Additionally, with the trend towards smaller and slimmer electronic devices such as smartphones, wearable devices, and gaming PCs, there is a need for ultra-thin heat dissipation solutions that can quickly diffuse localized heat generation.

Vapor chambers fulfill this need by providing efficient heat transfer in a compact and thin form factor.

Comparison of Thermal Management Solutions for Electronic Devices

CriteriaGraphite SheetHeat PipeVapor Chamber
Heat ConductivityModerateHighVery High
FlexibilityFlexibleRigidRigid
ThicknessThinModerateModerate to Thick
Heat SpreadingLimited to SurfaceModerateExcellent
ComplexitySimpleModerateComplex
Manufacturing CostLowModerateHigh

Photochemical Etching vs. Traditional Mechanical Machining

Traditional machining processes and photochemical etching are two methods used for manufacturing vapor chambers, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here's a comparison between the two:

AspectTraditional Machining ProcessesPhotochemical Etching
MethodMechanical removal of materialUse chemical removal of material
AccuracyHighHigh
Material WasteSignificantMinimal
CostRelatively highUpfront costs may be higher, but can be more cost-effective for complex designs and small to medium production runs
Material SelectionWide range of materialsLimited to thin metal sheets
Suitability for Complex DesignsGoodExcellent
Surface FinishMay require additional finishing operationsTypically smoother surface finish
Environmental ImpactHigher waste generationMinimal waste generation
Lead TimeLongerShorter
FlexibilityModerateHigh
Mass ProductionSuitableSuitable for small to medium production runs, may be less cost-effective for large production runs

Utilizing photochemical etching in vapor chamber manufacturing enables the production of thinner structures, facilitating the fabrication of ultra-thin vapor chambers suitable for space-constrained electronic devices.

Processor Heat Spreader
Diagram of Laptop Heat Spreader

How to Choose Photochemical Etching

TMN can meet your custom uniform light plate needs, completing orders quickly and efficiently.

The Advantages of TMN

Excellent Conductivity:

Ensures compatibility with electronic devices and circuits by offering outstanding electrical conductivity.

High Precision with Ultrafine Tolerance Control:

Achieves precision machining with tight tolerances, ensuring adherence to design specifications.

Burr-free and Stress-free Surface:

Enhances device reliability and stability by delivering a surface devoid of burrs and stress, minimizing potential points of failure.

Rapid Prototyping without Expensive Tooling:

Facilitates quick prototyping without the need for costly tooling, reducing production time and expenses.

Adaptability to Complex Designs:

Accommodates intricate designs and provides tailored solutions to meet specific requirements.

Cost Reduction and Enhanced Efficiency:

Lowers production costs while improving efficiency, making it a financially viable option for vapor chamber manufacturing.

Vapor Chamber: Common Materials

The materials commonly used in TMN's photolithographic etching process for producing Vapor Chambers include:

Copper: Copper is one of the common materials used in the production of Vapor Chambers due to its excellent thermal conductivity and machinability. During the chemical etching process, copper can be selectively removed to form the internal structure of the Vapor Chamber.

Stainless Steel: Stainless steel is also a commonly used material for Vapor Chambers, known for its good corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. During the chemical etching process, stainless steel can also be selectively removed.

Aluminum: Aluminum, known for its high thermal conductivity and lightweight, is also often used in the production of Vapor Chambers. Similar to copper and stainless steel, aluminum can be processed through chemical etching to form the internal structure of the Vapor Chamber.

Should you require any other materials, please feel free to let us know as we have a wide range of options available.

Stainless steel
Copper raw materials
Aluminum raw materials

Uniform Light: Photochemical Etching Samples

Vapor chamber sample 02
Vapor chamber sample 03
Vapor chamber sample 04
Vapor chamber sample 05
Vapor chamber sample 06
Vapor chamber sample 07
Vapor chamber sample 08
Vapor chamber sample 09
Vapor chamber sample 10
Vapor chamber sample 11

OEM:Customization Process

1. Streamlined Production Process:
Requires drawings in DWG/DXF/3D file formats, ensuring seamless integration with existing design systems.

2. High Production Capacity:
Capable of producing vapor chambers at a volume of 1800 square meters per day, meeting demands for large-scale manufacturing.

3. Rigorous Quality Assurance:
Utilizes advanced inspection equipment, including a Two-dimension inspection machine, to uphold stringent quality standards and ensure product integrity.

4. Secure Packaging Solutions:
Offers secure packaging options such as tape and reel, as well as blister packaging, safeguarding vapor chambers during transit and storage.

5. Expedited Sample Lead Times:
Provides sample lead times of 3-5 days, facilitating rapid prototyping and evaluation of vapor chamber designs.

6. Adherence to Industry Standards:
Complies with ISO 9001:2015 standards, demonstrating commitment to quality management and continuous improvement in manufacturing processes.

Vapor Chamber Business Market

Applications of Vapor Chamber

In addition to producing heat spreaders for smartphones and laptops, TMN also manufactures heat spreaders for various other industries, including but not limited to automotive, medical devices, industrial machinery, aerospace, and renewable energy systems.

Laptop Vapor Chamber
Laptop Vapor Chamber
Smartphone Vapor Chamber
Smartphone Vapor Chamber

Global Business Distribution

Global Business Distribution

Application Brands

Include but not limited to the following brands

lenovo
DELL
huawei
xiaomi

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